Bio: Dr. Javier Gardeazabal is a Professor of Economics at the University of the Basque Country. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from The University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. from the University of the Basque Country. His research is on empirical economics applied to fields such as international finance, economic growth, labor economics, cultural economics, the economics of conflict, and educational measurement. He is co-creator of the synthetic control method, a methodology to assess treatment effects at the aggregate level.